The unusual material and mode of fabrication of this type of snuff container was limited to Xhosa speaking peoples in the Eastern Cape and Southern Lesotho. Scrapings were taken from the interior of the hide of a freshly killed animal and mixed with blood and clay to make a paste that was molded over a dried clay form, premade in the desired shape. The paste was then repeatedly poked to form the knobby protrusions. Once the outer paste had dried and hardened, the clay interior was carefully broken up and removed through the vessel’s opening. This complex technique was notably used to make snuff containers in the form of cattle.
Reference: This snuff container is almost identical to one in the Smithsonian National Museum of Africa Art, Inventory number: 89-14-15. It was published in the “The Art of Daily Life” pp. 53.